What Is the IRS Form 990?

Form 990

If the organization needs a complete copy of its previously filed return, it can file Form 4506, Request for Copy of Tax Return. A state reporting requirement requires the organization to report certain revenue, expense, or balance sheet items differently from the way it normally accounts for them on its books. A Webinar: Nonprofit Month-End Closing Accounting Procedures prepared for that state is acceptable for IRS reporting purposes if the state reporting requirement doesn’t conflict with the Instructions for Form 990. If an organization that submits Form 990-N changes its accounting period, it must report this change on Form 990, Form 990-EZ, or Form 1128, or by sending a letter to Internal Revenue Service, 1973 Rulon White Blvd., Ogden, UT 84201. If the organization has established a fiscal year accounting period, use the 2022 Form 990 to report on the organization’s fiscal year that began in 2022 and ended 12 months later. A fiscal year accounting period should normally coincide with the natural operating cycle of the organization.

Form 990

If you do lose your exempt status by not filing the 990, there is no appeal process with the IRS. Your nonprofit could have to pay income taxes, user fees, and have to file additional paperwork. For tax years beginning after December 31, 2020, section 501(c)(21) trusts will use Form 990 instead of Form 990-BL to meet section 6033 reporting requirements. A section 501(c)(21) black lung trust, trustee, or disqualified person liable for section 4951 or 4952 excise taxes will use Form 6069 to report and pay sections 4951 and 4952 excise taxes. For tax years beginning before January 1, 2021, section 501(c)(21) black lung trusts that could not use Form 990-N, e-Postcard (see Who Must File, earlier), used Form 990-BL to meet the reporting requirements of section 6033. A section 501(c)(21) black lung trust, trustee, or disqualified person liable for section 4951 or 4952 excise taxes also used Form 990-BL to report and pay those taxes.

Types of 990 Forms for Nonprofits

If the organization is required to file Form 8282, Donee Information Return, to report information to the IRS and to donors about dispositions of certain donated property made within 3 years after the donor contributed the property, it must answer “Yes” and indicate the number of Forms 8282 filed. Check this box if the organization has terminated its existence or ceased to be a section 501(a) or section 527 organization and is filing its final return as an exempt organization or section 4947(a)(1) trust. For example, an organization should check this box when it has ceased operations and dissolved, merged into another organization, or has had its exemption revoked by the IRS. An organization that checks this box because it has liquidated, terminated, or dissolved during the tax year must also attach Schedule N (Form 990).

Form 990

Persons who hold certain powers, responsibilities, or interests are among those who are in positions to exercise substantial influence over the affairs of the organization. Unless otherwise provided, includes donations, gifts, bequests, grants, and other transfers of money or property to the extent that adequate consideration isn’t provided in exchange and that the contributor intends to make a gift, whether or not made for charitable purposes. A transaction can be partly a sale and partly a contribution, but discounts provided on sales of goods in the ordinary course of business shouldn’t be reported as contributions. Neither donations of services (such as the value of donated advertising space, broadcast air time, or discounts on services) nor donations of use of materials, equipment, or facilities should be reported as contributions. For purposes of Form 990, a distribution to a section 501(c)(3) organization from a split-interest trust (for example, charitable remainder trust, charitable lead trust) is reportable as a contribution. An entity that is owned, directly or indirectly (for example, under constructive ownership rules of section 267(c)), by a given person, such as the organization’s current or former officers, directors, trustees, or key employees listed on Form 990, Part VII, Section 1, or the family members thereof (listed persons) as follows.

Filing modalities

Unless otherwise provided (for example, Signature Block, principal officer in Heading), a person elected or appointed to manage the organization’s daily operations at any time during the tax year, such as a president, vice president, secretary, treasurer, and, in some cases, Board Chair. The officers of an organization are determined by reference to its organizing document, bylaws, or resolutions of its governing body, or as otherwise designated consistent with state law, but at a minimum include those officers required by applicable state law. For purposes of https://simple-accounting.org/best-practice-to-hire-or-outsource-for-nonprofit/, treat the organization’s top management official and top financial official as officers. Enter the total amount of all liabilities not properly reportable on lines 17 through 24. Items properly reported on this line include federal income taxes payable and secured or unsecured payables to related organizations.

Schedule B (Form 990), Schedule of Contributors, is available for public inspection for section 527 organizations filing Form 990 or 990-EZ. For other organizations that file Form 990 or 990-EZ, parts of Schedule B (Form 990) can be open to public inspection. See Appendix D, Public Inspection of Returns, and the Instructions for Schedule B (Form 990) for more details. It’s required for nonprofits with gross receipts that are greater than or equal to $200,000 or total assets that are greater than or equal to $500,000. In short, a Form 990 is an informational document highlighting your nonprofit’s mission, programs, finances, and accomplishments from the past year.


Certain federal or state laws provide protection against whistleblower retaliation and prohibit destruction of certain documents. Also note that an organization is required to keep books and records relevant to its tax exemption and its filings with the IRS. Check this box if the organization either has filed a Form 1023, 1023-EZ, 1024, or 1024-A with the IRS and is awaiting a response, or claims tax-exempt status under section 501(a) but hasn’t filed Form 1023, 1023-EZ, 1024, or 1024-A to be recognized by the IRS as tax exempt. If this box is checked, the organization must complete all parts of Form 990 and any required schedules. An organization that is required to file an annual information return (Form 990 or Form 990-EZ) or submit an annual electronic notice (Form 990-N) for a tax year (see General Instructions, Section A, earlier) must do so even if it hasn’t yet filed a Form 1023, 1023-EZ, 1024, or 1024-A with the IRS, if it claims tax-exempt status. Many nonprofit board members and employees come from a for-profit, corporate background.

  • Additionally, the IRS generally can’t disclose the names and addresses of contributors.
  • The disqualified person is also liable for a 200% tax on the excess benefit if the excess benefit isn’t corrected by a certain date.
  • Use Schedule I (Form 990) to report amounts over $5,000 paid by the black lung trust to or for the benefit of miners or their beneficiaries other than amounts included on line 21.
  • The following is a list of special instructions for the form and schedules regarding the reporting of a joint venture of which the organization is a member.
  • If this process has changed from the prior year, describe on Schedule O (Form 990).

Federated fundraising agencies normally conduct fundraising campaigns within a single metropolitan area or some part of a particular state, and allocate part of the net proceeds to each participating organization on the basis of the donors’ individual designations and other factors. In column (D), report any revenue excludable from unrelated business income by section 512, 513, or 514. Examples of such revenue include receipts from the sale of donated merchandise, interest (unless debt-financed), and receipts from bingo games. The following items of compensation provided by the filing organization and related organizations must be reported as “other compensation” in column (F) in all cases regardless of the amount, to the extent they aren’t included in column (D). S chairs a small academic department in the College of Arts and Sciences of the same university, T, described above.